I was reading ‘Project Ireland 2040-National Planning Framework‘ and it got me thinking about what percentage of people in each ED commute for an hour or more to work. This is exactly the type of unsustainable living that needs to be avoided by promoting as much infill development as possible in existing urban centres. Below is a map I created that shows the commuting times that people face, obviously, it is important to bear in mind that the stark red colour still only equates to a maximum of 34% of people commuting for an hour or more. This is still just over one third, which is significant. Although not designed with the purpose in mind it gives a good indication of the functional urban area of the major cities (especially Dublin).